Pie Charts

A pie chart is a form of graph that uses a circular graph to display data. The graph’s parts are proportional to the percentage of the total in each group. In other words, the size of each slice of the pie is proportional to the size of the group as a whole. The full “pie” represents 100% of the whole whereas the pie “slices” represent sections of the whole.


A polygon is a shape formed from three or more points joined by three or more straight lines, The points are known as vertices (each point is a vertex), and the lines are called sides—the name of most polygons relates to the number of angles or sides it has.

Venn Diagrams

Venn diagrams AVenn diagram shows the relationship between sets. In a Venn diagram, a set is ‘usually represented by a circle, and the universal set by a rectangle. Elements of a· set are often represented ·by points in the circle. Each part of the diagram .is labeled and the parts being considered are shaded.

Liquid Crystal

Liquid crystal (LC) is a state of matter with qualities that fall in between liquids and solid crystals.
A liquid crystal, for example, may flow like a liquid but have its molecules arranged in a crystal-like pattern.
Liquid-crystal phases come in a variety of shapes and sizes, each with its own set of optical properties (such as textures).
Domains where liquid-crystal molecules are orientated in opposite orientations correspond to the contrasting sections in the textures.
The molecules, on the other hand, are well organized within a domain.
It’s possible that LC materials aren’t always in a liquid-crystal state of matter (just as water may turn into ice or water vapor).


Friction is a fundamental force that exists in the physical world and is responsible for many everyday phenomena. It arises whenever two surfaces come into contact with one another and is the reason why objects don’t just slide or slip around uncontrollably. Friction is a complex phenomenon that arises from...

The University of York

The University of York is a research-intensive university located in the historic city of York, United Kingdom. It has established itself as one of the top universities in the UK and worldwide. The university has a diverse community of over 18,000 students from over 150 countries, and offers a wide...

George Boole: The Father of Boolean Algebra

George Boole was a 19th-century mathematician and philosopher who is widely regarded as the founder of modern symbolic logic and Boolean algebra. Born in Lincoln, England, in 1815, Boole was a self-taught mathematician who developed an interest in algebra and logic at a young age. Boole’s most significant contribution to...

The Slide Rule

This mechanical analogue computer was invented in the 1600s. The middle section of the ruler could be slid out to work out mathematical functions by reading the numbers on the scale. The slide rule, also known as a slipstick, is a mechanical device used for performing mathematical calculations. It was...