The Java programming language was developed by Canadian computer scientist James Gosling (b. 1955) for the American computer company Sun Microsystem’s Java platform – a collection of software designed to allow programmers to develop a variety of systems. These ranged from tiny applications hosted on smartcards for personal banking, to large systems designed for use by many people across an organization. Web browsers soon included the ability to run small self-contained applications, called Java applets, which increased Java’s popularity.