What is Spatial Temporal?

The term “spatial” refers to empty space. The word “temporal” is short for “time.” Spatiotemporal analysis, also known as spatial temporal analysis, is a type of data analysis that is used when the data being analyzed spans both space and time. It provides a description of a phenomenon that takes place at a particular time and location, such as the movement of shipping across a geographic area over the course of time (see above example image). By visualizing how things move through space and time, a person can solve multi-step problems using a form of reasoning known as spatial-temporal reasoning.


Entropy is an essential concept in the fields of physics and chemistry, and it also has applications in a variety of other fields, such as cosmology, biology, and economics. It is a subfield of thermodynamics in the field of physics. It is considered a subfield of physical chemistry within the field of chemistry.

Entropy can be defined in a straightforward manner by stating that it is the measure of the disorder that exists within a system. The entropy of an ordered system is lower than that of a disordered system, which has a higher entropy. The term “entropy” is frequently defined in a slightly different manner by physicists, who assert that it refers to the energy of a closed system that cannot be used to perform work.

Because entropy is a comprehensive property of a thermodynamic system, its value is directly proportional to the total mass of the constituent substances. In equations, the letter S is used to represent entropy as a symbol. It is measured in joules per kelvin (J.K-1) or kg⋅m2⋅s−2⋅K−1.

The Rose Garden Puzzle

“A friend of mine,” said Professor Rackbrane, “has a rectangular garden, and he wants to make exactly one-half of it into a large bed of roses with a gravel path of uniform width around it. Can you find a general rule that will apply equally to any rectangular garden, regardless of its proportions? All the measurements must be made in the garden. A plain ribbon, no shorter than the length of the garden, is all the material required.”

Tape Libraries

A tape library is a storage device that contains one or more tape drives, a number of slots to hold tape cartridges, a barcode reader to identify tape cartridges, and an automated method for loading tapes. It is also sometimes referred to as a tape silo, tape robot, or tape jukebox. A tape library is not just the place where tapes that are not currently being held in a silo are kept, but it is also the name of the location. Tape libraries have the capacity to store millions upon millions of tapes.

The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS), which was introduced in 1974, is considered to be one of the early instances.

The Mercury Delay Line Memory

The mercury delay line was a method for representing binary zeros and ones as pulses of acoustic energy that relied on sound waves flowing through a tube of mercury. At the very least, in principle, the pulses could travel through the delay line unbrokenly if they were to capture the sound waves at the other end of the line and then feed them back into the beginning. This meant that data bits were stored within the system so long as the power was maintained and there was no interference with the usual operation of the system. Around 500 bits of information might be stored in a single delay line at any given time. Although it was more dependable than radio valve logic, a drawback was that each delay line required 20 kilograms of mercury to operate. Be thankful that computers no longer use this technology; if they did, a modern laptop with even a relatively modest memory of 4 gigabytes would mostly weigh more than 1.3 million metric tonnes.

Magnetic-core Memory

The term “magnetic-core memory” refers to any one of a class of computer memory devices that consists of a large array of tiny toruses made of a hard magnetic material that can be magnetised in either of two directions. Other names for this type of memory include “core memory” and “magnetic-core storage.” Both of these directions have the potential to represent either the value 0 or the value 1 in a binary bit. In the 1950s, magnetic core memory began to see extensive use, but by the 1970s, it had been mostly rendered obsolete by semiconductor memory chips.

Miniature Untethered EEG Recorder Improves
Advanced Neuroscience Methodologies

The NAT-1 (Neural Activity Tracker) is a highly miniaturised wireless electronic recording system created in an industry-academic collaboration by the Universities of York, Aberdeen, and Cybula Ltd., with specific applications in rodent-based neuroscience.

In preclinical research, rodent electroencephalography (EEG) is often used in acting animals. The difficulty in distinguishing EEG epochs connected with a specific behaviour or trigger, on the other hand, is a substantial impediment to more efficient analysis. In this study, we present a novel method for successfully synchronising EEG from superficial sites above the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex with video motion tracking data in a transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) animal model using infrared event stamping. Prior to further investigation, epochs capturing specified behaviours were automatically recognised and retrieved. This was accomplished by the development of a revolutionary ultra-miniature wearable EEG recorder, the NAT-1 device, and its in-situ IR recording module. The device is thoroughly detailed, and its importance to the advancement of novel neuroscience is demonstrated.

Crispin-Bailey, Christopher, Austin, James
0001-5762-8614, Moulds, Anthony et al. (2 more authors) (2019) Miniature Untethered
EEG Recorder Improves Advanced Neuroscience Methodologies. IEEE Transactions on
Biomedical Circuits and Systems. pp. 1101-1111. ISSN 1932-4545